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Want less stress? Get excited, join a choir and help others.

7 Apr

We have all felt stressed at some stage in your life, You might even have felt stressed already today. You might feel a little bit of anxiety reading this realising you are meant to be doing something more productive or important. You are alive because of stress, If there was no stress you would be dead.

You might enjoy spending time walking in the park looking at the various animals in nature or feeling relaxed looking into your back garden at some birds that are feeding on breadcrumbs or seeds that you have left out for them.

Watching them sit on the garden fence nervously looking around and waiting for that moment when there seems to be no predators around and then quickly flying to the bread still looking around anxiously and taking quick nips at the bread while still surveying the garden for danger. Eventually flying away in a panic when they hear an unfamiliar noise like a back door slamming.  The bird needs to eat to but it also has a desire to stay alive and it does this by remaining in a heightened state of stress while it tries to eat in a possibly dangerous unfamiliar environment.

No Stress = No Human Race

This is exactly how we have survived as a human race for 10’s of thousands of years. The fight or flight response kept us alive as hunter gatherers thousands of years ago before agriculture when we had to hunt for food in environments where we could also be seen as something elses food. Cortisol, adrenaline, glucose and even oxytocin is secreted into the body to help us defend ourselves in these situations and stay alive or run away and survive. Just like the little bird in your garden. Or the squirrel in the park.

We no longer rely on hunting as a means to stay alive in this modern world. But our bodies are still equipped to experience the same fight or flight response. We might get the same release of stress hormones into our body late at night down a dark alleyway when we feel something is not quite right. These stress hormones help us to fight and defend ourselves and stay alive or depart the situation very quickly and also stay alive. A very similar situation to our hunter gatherer ancestors. But in the safer world that we live in there is less need for this response.

We have a created a number of different activities and situations that cause our bodies to  trigger the fight or flight response now, job interviews, being late for a deadline, road rage,feelings of inadequacy, difficulty paying bills or being overwhelmed at work all can trigger the fight or flight response and stress. The thing is, if the bird in the back garden feeding on the bread, felt that same level of stress all the time it would quite quickly die. Its heart and immune system would eventually break down and life would end. It’s the  exact same for us. Too much stress with out a break kills us.

Stressjpg

We are not good at being stressed for long periods of time. Our bodies can’t take it. In today’s world though how do we avoid any stress at all? We could spend our life avoiding the exam, the job interview,the first date the work presentation. But ultimately live a life unfulfilled and without challenge. Feeling anxiety and experiencing feelings of discomfort in unfamiliar situations are behaviours that our brain has not forgotten. It’s a coping mechanism. Is there a way to harness stress to work in our favour and help us?

It seems there is

Anxiety and excitement are very similar states. They are both aroused emotions. In both cortisol(stress hormone) surges the heart beats faster and the body is preparing itself for action. The only difference is that one is a negative emotion and the other is positive. When we are in an anxious state the first piece of advice usually is to calm down and relax. This is almost impossible as the body is surging with cortisol and adrenaline and the heart is beating faster and the blood is being oxygenated. Returning to a zen like state any time soon is unlikely.  How can we use this anxiety filled state to benefit us in this situation?

congruence

Well Alison Woods Brooks a professor at Harvard business school found some interesting results through research in 2014.

She conducted three experiments.

  1. The first one involved 113 participants in an activity that would certainly raise the stress levels. Sing a song in front of a group of people. The song she chose was “Don’t stop believin” by Journey due to its familiarity and popularity.  She then split participants into groups.  Each group either focused on feeling anxious, excited, calm, sad or angry. With phrases like “I am anxious” or “I am excited”. Using a video game that scored on pitch and accuracy of singing from participants.

The results were interesting. All those in the anxious group scored a 53% accuracy on the gaming results. Those that had focused on calm, anger or sadness had achieved 69% averages. But this that had focused on “I am excited” had seen a score of 80% average and reported a greater feeling of enjoyment while performing. It takes less of a move to change anxiety to excitement( arousal congruence) than to switch it to calmness.

2. Public speaking is a frightening prospect for many people but we all have to deal with it at some stage. 140 participants were asked to talk to a team of  judges on “Why they should be considered good working partners” The judges were to ask tough questions and the participants were to be filmed. Participants were asked to repeat beforehand that “I am calm” or ” I am excited”. Independent evaluators judged those in the excited group had more persuasive, competent and relaxed presentations.

3. The third experiment involved a series of mathematical tests. Beforehand 188 participants either focused on “Trying to get excited” “Trying to keep calm” or did nothing at all. All those in the excited group performed 8% on average higher in the test than the calm and control group and reported feeling more relaxed about their capabilities.

The way it works is that it puts people into an opportunity mindset with a focus on the positives that can happen rather than dwelling on a threat mindset where anxiety lies.

 

Kelly McGonigal who spoke on the TED stage back in 2013 spoke about the importance of using stress to your advantage. If we think differently about stress we can see remarkable results. The heart beating faster is helping you, you get blood flowing to the brain and greater oxygenation of the blood vessels.

Kelly says that when you believe that while you are stressed the body is helping you with your current situation your body believes it too and responds accordingly.

She argues that stress makes us social. The body produces oxytocin when we are stressed its also produced when we make love or are hugged by someone. It’s seen as a trust hormone. It’s a neurohormone. When we are stressed and we seek supports and make social contacts with others we produce oxytocin. The more oxytocin we produce the faster you recover from stressful situations. This might account for the high levels of life expectancy within countries that score high for strong social support on the World happiness report. Countries Like Norway, Denmark, Iceland and other Nordic countries score high on trust and social supports. Icelandic citizens in particular with a life expectancy of 83 rely on strong social supports and connections.

Choir6

 Sing like your winning

Iceland has over 300 choirs with more than 9,000 members in a population of 325,000 people, that is very impressive.Choirs are a great way to feel less stressed and connected as explained here  by Oliver Burkeman and experience something greater than you alone.

It’s what we do when we are in a stressful situation that matters. A 5 year study by Michael Poulin released in 2013 at the University of Buffalo in New york involved almost 900 people in the Detroit Michigan area.  The participants all aged between 34-93 were asked two questions

  1. How much stress have you experienced in the past year?
  2. How much time have you spent helping to friends, neighbours and relatives?

Specifically, over the five years of the study, we found that when dealing with stressful situations, those who had helped others during the previous year were less likely to die than those who had not helped others,” he says.

Self-reported stressful experiences included such things as serious, non-life-threatening illness, burglary, job loss, financial difficulties or death of a family member.

Respondents also reported the total amount of time in the past 12 months they had spent helping friends, neighbours or relatives who did not live with them by providing transportation, doing errands and shopping, performing housework, providing child care and other tasks.

“When we adjusted for age, baseline health and functioning and key psychosocial variables,” Poulin says, “the Cox proportional hazard models (the most widely used method of survival analysis) for mortality revealed a significant interaction between helping behavior, stressful events, morbidity and mortality.

“Our conclusion,” he says, “is that helping others reduced mortality specifically by buffering the association between stress and mortality.

It’s not that we experience stress that is affecting us it’s what we do with the stress that matters. Stress is inevitable we can’t escape it will always be a part of our lives.

If you are feeling anxious before a test, a first date, job interview or work presentation understand that what is going on in your body is trying to help you. So

What works/

  • Reframe your situation: Use that energy to help you “feel excited” will always give you greater advantage, It’s called arousal congruence.
  • When you are stressed use the supports around you to help you release oxytocin. Get hugs, have sex or simply connect on a deeper level with those around you. The oxytocin will help the heart regenerate from stress related damage. The more oxytocin you produce the faster you recover from stress.
  • Join a choir. The sense of belonging and connection to something bigger has a great impact on our stress,social connections and pain threshold. Research from Goldsmiths college in London explains this
  • Do good for others. Caring for other people lowers levels of stress considerably and creates resilience.

 

Maybe its time to take control of your stress.

 

 

The 3rd Happiest Place in the world?

30 Mar

Iceland seems to be the place to go for a short break these days. No one ever talks about taking a two-week holiday or a month off to see Iceland. A couple of things probably play into this. One is that it seems to be really expensive. So expensive that only the Norwegians and the Danish and any of the residents of Monaco could afford to go and you know the Monegasque. people have no plan on heading north on holiday. The second is probably the weather. I’m feeling cold just thinking about the place.

Iceland is also a pretty unforgiving landscape. Icelandic natives call it the Beast, It gets tepid rather than warm during the summer months, tepid and bright and then it gets cold and dark really dark.  Many people think there are no trees in Iceland. That’s a myth but the truth is they don’t have as many as the Vikings would have seen in the 9th century on arrival or the Irish monks that visited in the 7th and the 8th century. What must Iceland have looked like to these early arrivals on this volcanic rock. The First Norwegian arrivals called it Snowland. A large amount of Iceland is volcanic rock. Not ideal terrain for tree planting. But reforestation is happening. Most trees are based around towns and Reykjavik

Alcohol was only legalised in 1989. With less than 30 years of legal alcohol production they wouldn’t be seen as world leaders in brewing or distilling. In 1908 Icelanders voted on a ban on all alcohol this came into play in 1915. By 1921 Spain refused to buy any Icelandic fish stocks until Iceland began to buy Spanish wine. Spirits were legalised in 1935 and beer with more 2.25% alcohol was not allowed, with the temperance lobby arguing it would lead to greater depravity( said the descendants of the Vikings)

As Icelandic citizens travelled abroad regularly the began two get a taste for beer. Bars in Iceland began adding spirits to non alcoholic beer for customers in the 1980’s but the minister for Justice banned this practice. Coming in line with other western societies prohibition of beer ended on March 1st 1989. Which ingeniously is now called “Beer Day”or Bjordagur.

Again you need to be quite organised if you like to drink alcohol in Iceland, as all Vínbúðin ( Wine shops) are state owned and are few and far between. They have restrictive opening hours 11am until 6pm Monday to Saturday . They go mad on Friday and stay open untill 7pm. On Sunday you can forget it none are open that day.

So when Icelanders are not drinking they read books. They really love books . In Iceland they publish more books per capita than any other country. Apparently 1 in 10 will publish a book over a lifetime.  As they say, “ Better to go Barefoot than without books” Maybe this ability to get lost in reading and writing allows the Icelandic to immerse themselves in imagination  and learning during the dark winter days and nights.

The Icelandic have a day for lots of different reasons. A day for men Bundadagur, a day for women called Konudagur and a day all countries should celebrate… a day for buns Bolludagur.

Buns

If you like McDonald’s you are out of luck They closed down when the Krona became expensive to deal with internationally and all the McDonald’s produce had to be imported from Germany. Not a bad thing in my opinion.

The truth is that when you are living or travelling within Iceland. You seem to have a disconnection and a connection. You have a connection to beauty and vastness of this beautiful Island. You can find solitude and a connection with nature that other places on earth make it feel a little more difficult to do and you also make a connection with people, you also can readily disengage from what really doesn’t matter in life and create a greater bond with the environment around you, the people from it and ultimately a greater connection with yourself.

Icelandic land

What are the 6 key factors to happiness and how does Iceland score rate with them?

  1. GDP per capita
  2. Social Support
  3. Healthy Life expectancy
  4. Social Freedom
  5. Generosity
  6. Absence of corruption

Icelands GDP per capita

When you think about it the GDP of Iceland should have fallen dramatically since the financial banking collapse of 2008. The Nordic average between Norway, Denmark,Sweden,Finland and Iceland is $47,375. Iceland’s GDP in 2016 sits at $43,872  this is higher than Finland but below the other 3 Nordic countries. But we know GDP on its own does not create a happier nation.

But economics does play a part and for a while Iceland was teetering on a rocky edge. The financial collapse in 2008 brought tough decisions for the people of Iceland. Three Banks  Kaupping,Glitnir and Landsbanki  were the banks responsible. The banks were equivalent to 10 times the GDP of Iceland and 20 times the state budget. Too big to bail out. In the space of 3 days 97% of the banking sector collapsed.

Iceland responded by conducting an extremely detailed investigation through a special agency into how this came about . They discovered like many other countries that the loans and capital were built on a distorted web of transactions and deals.

From this the Govt decided that people could not be driven into bankruptcy and the debt of households could not be more than the cost of their house. It became more complicated than this. The British and the Netherlands Government wanted a return of $5 billion that their citizens had lost  from Icesave accounts s during this collapse, The two governments had paid out to the citizens from those countries that had lost out. They then looked to Iceland for a reimbursement. The Icelandic Govt was going to reimburse but the president Olafur Ragnar Grimsonn vetoed this twice and went to a democratic vote of the people and the decision to pay back Britain and the Netherlands was vetoed,

Gordon Browns Government were incensed and placed Iceland on a listing of terrorists countries and organisations that included Al Qaeda and the Taliban. But the president Olafur said afterwards. “Paying back the British economy was asking Icelandic taxpayers to be responsible for the failure of this private bank. It was equal to asking the British Taxpayer to be responsible for $1,125 billion for a failure of a British Bank in Spain or Italy.” We did not pump public money into failed banks. We treated them like private companies that went bankrupt and let them fail”

Investigations happened and CEOs of Banks and others were jailed. No one else had done this before. GDP has dropped over the past number of years but all the mathematicians , engineers and computer scientists that were involved in the banks quickly got jobs in the I.T, Science  and start up sector, a much more beneficial use of talent for Iceland in the long run.

Dora Guorun Guomundsdottiris a psychologist in Reykjavik and the director general of the public health services Iceland. claims that money only 1 to 4% of happiness in Iceland. She says that people often overestimate the importance of money and their happiness.

We must also remember that Greece, Italy and Spain are still struggling years on and are much lower down the world happiness rankings with Greece at 87. Ireland is doing better at number 15 on rankings but it has accumulated a lot of debt for future generations.

Social Support

This is one of the key advantages of living in small communities, Thee is a greater chance of feeling that you have the support of people around you.

The question asked in the World happiness report was “If you were in trouble, do you have relatives or friends you can count on to help you whenever you need them?” Iceland scored higher than any other nation on this front with 99% of its populace agreeing with this statement. The one key thing that Icelanders feel is that there is always someone there to look out for them. Even as outlined above times of economic crises the Government and especially the President looked out for them and acted in a manner that cared more than other governments had done in similar circumstances. Those in power supported them in hard times.

Within Icelandic life Children have always mattered. Parents are provided with 9 months Maternity/Paternity leave for children. Both parents get joint custody of children after a divorce unless otherwise agreed. The child will always take the father’s name but since 1991 equality has allowed the mothers name to be used to. It works like this your father’s name could have been  Olarfur Arnarson his son’s name is Benny he becomes Benny Olarfsun ( son of Olarf) rather than Benny Arnarson. A daughter’s name might be Eva she will be called Eva Olarfdóttir( daughter of Olarfur) you get it now.

Incredibly 70.5% of babies are born out-of-wedlock in Iceland. There is no stigma with this in society and at the father is generally a part of the child’s life always. This goes back to Viking times when the men went travelling to foreign lands to pillage and get warmer, they left their wives at home with slaves from Scotland or Ireland. Many wives ended up having babies with the men left behind , When the Vikings returned their was a great tolerance for what happened and today it’s not uncommon for all 3 parents to be were involved in parenting. To this day if a parent that has sole custody marries again the Stepfather or Stepmom also gets custody even after one whole year of cohabitation.

Universities run day care for babies so Mothers can continue their education. This is very normal. Maternity leave is for 9 months at 80% salary. Thus is divided into 3 months for the Mother, 3 Months for the Father and 3 to be shared by both.  State run play schools are then there to help once the parents return to work, Iceland like all the other Nordic countries a high level of social support that contributes to its peoples happiness.

 

Healthy Life Expectancy

iceland thermal

The Icelandic population is one of the worlds highest Life expectancy rates at 83. The world average is 71. The fresh air, clean water, time spent sitting in thermal pools and an oily fish diet must play a big part in this. In the World Happiness report 2017 ( which rates this score on a number of factors) this is where Iceland excels with a score of 72.05 when the Nordic average is 71.42 and with the United states pitching in at only 70.13 . It’s hard to beat the Icelandic on life expectancy.

Generosity

They are also a very generous nation and happily give to others. They score higher than any other Nordic country the donation scale. Scoring 0.27 on the index as opposed to The Nordic average of 0.12. In 2015 Over 12,000 of the 329,000 Iceland population asked the Government to provide more support to Syrian refugees. Many offering ways that they can help.

Social freedom

Iceland 1

On March the 8th 2017 World women day Iceland announced it will require all employers to prove that they provide equal pay to their employees, regardless of gender, ethnicity, sexuality or nationality. Iceland is the first country in the world to introduce such a policy.

When Icelanders were asked “Are you satisfied or dissatisfied with your freedom to choose what to do with your life?  95% of the population were able to respond positively to this in line with Norway, Denmark and Finland.

Choices in Iceland are easier if you know that you have a large number of supports available to you. Education is free and University education has no tuition fees just a simple €100/€250 registration fee so students are not crippled with debt on leaving College.

For single parents with children there are day care facilities available within the University to cater for child minding. The ability to make independent decisions about careers and life choices is driving factor in happiness levels. Icelanders have a huge feeling of autonomy and control over their lives.

With 24 days annual holidays provided and 12 paid public holidays, Iceland has plenty of time to enjoy time with the family,travel or enjoy leisure time.

Just like other Nordic countries babies are left in prams outside coffee shops and children are allowed to travel to school on their own as young as six. Playing outside even on dark evenings and long summer nights is a way of life for citizens, with many social freedoms that others do not.

Interestingly Iceland’s government-run television station, which began broadcasting in 1966 and was the country’s sole channel for 20 years, went dark every Thursday until 1987 in order to promote human interaction. It also did not broadcast during the vacation month of July until 1983. People in Iceland love playing boardgames. Maybe thisd began in that period. Scrabble, anyone?

 Corruption

According to the Global peace index. Iceland is the safest place in the world to live a position it has held since 2009 with the exception of 2010 when it slipped to number 2. Knowing your country has that title must create a nice feeling for residents of Iceland. They don’t have an army or a navy yet they were one of the founding members of NATO.

On the Corruption perception index 2016 Iceland scored the lowest score of all the Nordic countries dropping to 14th place. This is not the worst position to be,but it is an indicator that perception from citizens  is different from once perceived. In the world happiness report 2017 Iceland scored a 0.72 perception of living in a corrupt society much higher than the Danish score of 0.21 and a Swedish and Norwegian score of 0.25.

The banking crisis and trust in organisations that plan to place factories where they can mine silica for Solar panels are seen as at odds with how Icelanders see how their country should move forward. There is also talk about privatisation off the health service which is worrying many that health care may drop into the wrong hands.

Strong Mental Health

Icelandic road

Dora Guorun Guomundsdottiris reckons that if monetary income only predicts 4% of happiness where does the other 96% needed come from. According to research that she has completed and from other studies, the best predictor for happiness is, social relationships. Findings from Icelandic data demonstrates that living with a partner is more likely to result in living a happier life than living alone, and spending time with friends and family also increases happiness. Another important factor for happiness is health, and in particular a persons mental health.

Dora developed Ten commandments of Mental health to help with people’s misconceptions of what leads to happiness. The Public health Institute of Iceland sent the ten commandments on a fridge magnet as a Christmas gift to every Icelandic home. If you drop into any Icelandic home have a look on the fridge and you may see them sitting there. Here they are

  • Think Positively
  • Cherish the ones you love
  • Continue learning as you live
  • Learn from your mistakes
  • Exercise daily
  • Do not complicate your life unnecessarily
  • Try to understand and encourage those around you
  • Do not give up: Success in life is a marathon not a sprint.
  • Discover and nurture your talents
  • Set goals for yourself and pursue your dreams

What is working?

For people to have lived on a cold  volcanic rocky outcrop in the Northern Atlantic for over a 1,000 years, it takes a number of strengths and one of those strengths is resilience. Whatever about living in Iceland in 2017. It is hard to image what it was like in the 9th and subsequent centuries. A country completely exposed to the elements. Yet they grew oats, barley and wheat, and ground the grain to make flour, porridge and ale. Vikings grew vegetables such as onions, beans and cabbages. Their farm animals included pigs, sheep, goats, cattle, geese and chickens. They used manure from the animals to keep the soil fertile. The surrounding oceans were the farms for Fisherman. But through all this the bitter cold of living in unheated abodes unlike now must have been difficult. Surrounded by unforgiving seas.

On 11 march 1984 Guðlaugur Friðþórsson was On a fishing trawler which capsized off the Westmanns Islands 3 miles from Iceland’s coast. The 4 other fisherman onboard died as the ship sank. Guðlaugur swam the 3 miles in 5º sea temperature to the Icelandic coast before having to traverse volcanic rock and -3 º wind temperatures to arrive at house 9 hours after capsizing at 7am. His core body temperature had only dropped to 34º without signs of Hypothermia. A film called the deep was made about his story. This is an example of the resilience that is needed to live on a rocky outcrop in the North atlantic.

The Icelanders also understand the importance of social  connection and surrounding yourself with family and friends. OF all the countries in the World happiness report 2017, Iceland scored highest when asked “If you were in trouble, do you have relatives or friends you can count on to help you whenever you need them?.  A huge 99% of icelanders said yes to this. They understand the importance of having social connections.

Equality is also something that they have worked on providing equality to all nationalities , genders and sexualities on March The 8th of 2017. Inequality within cultures is one of the greatest contributors to happiness.

The financial collapse of 2008 happened over 3 days that should have signalled an end to Iceland’s fortunes. They are still struggling to this day and the president and the people of the country that the public money should not be used to fund private banks. Measures were taken and some bankers were jailed none of the same actions are taken by Ireland, Greece Spain or Portugal all countries that could have learned from Icelands human approach. The people of Iceland feel they have a say and for many (but not all) they feel that the Government cares about them.

Iceland’s biggest problem at present is the huge rise in the number of visitors. It was roughly 500,000 a year before the iconic collapse of 2008 and is now closer to 1.5 million a year. Can Iceland sustain this number of tourists and does it have the  infrastructure to cope with an increasing number of them. Does Iceland want its main industry to be tourism or has it a more sustainable goal for industry as tourism can be fickle and as the ash cloud eruption of 2010 showed it can suddenly stop.

They have realised that if others are miserable, the likelihood will be that everyone will struggle with Happiness. The financial crisis is seen as a chance to wipe the slate clean and use it as an opportunity to build a more open society. In Iceland 85% of people reported  more positive experiences( feelings of rest, pride, accomplishment and enjoyment) than negative experiences of pain, boredom and sadness. This says a lot about the 3rd happiest nation in the world.

Sunny Iceland

Either way the Sunny outlook of a people who have found a way to live happily on a sometime dark, unforgiving rocky outcrop in the North Atlantic is a testament to the realisation that it is your outlook on life and how you live it that matters not your surroundings alone. Icelanders have learnt to embrace where they live and love who they live with.

They have a lovely saying that sums it all up, sometimes life can unexpectedly surprise you with little gifts

Það er rúsínan í pylsuendanum (That is the raisin at the end of the hot dog) 

 

 

Is Norway Really Happy?

28 Mar

When you think about it Norway doesn’t really have much going for it. It’s Geographical  position is one of the coldest parts of Europe. Long cold winters are a part of life in a country that has 30% of its landmass in the Arctic circle. Temperatures drop significantly, snow arrives lack of light and darkness is pretty much a way of life from November to February. So much so they call it Mørketiden ( murky times) in the far northern regions. The long days of sunlight from June to August must play havoc with the Nordic Circadian rhythm.

Norway was extremely poor before the late 1960’s and the they discovered oil. Until then Norwegian life was nothing like it is today’

The high rate of taxes between 40/45% of Salary and a vat rate of 25% on goods and 15% tax on food take quite a chunk out of everyone’s earnings. A Tv licence is 2680 KR which is €317. So you would expect some quality TV for that price.More about that later.

They don’t spend too much time at cinemas or in restaurants due to the high cost. They haven’t got the same love affair with coffee as the Finns and the Swedes both number 1 and 2 in the world coffee drinking rankings. They don’t even like ice cream as much as the ice cream obsessed Swedes or enjoy Fika( drinking coffee with a sweet treat) as Swedes do daily and at 3pm in almost all workplaces .

You need to be quite organised to buy alcohol, as only alcohol below 4.75% abs can be sold in supermarkets, anything stronger must be sold in state-run shops Vinmonopolet.They close by 18:00 on weekdays and 15:00 on a Saturday and no alcohol sales on Sunday. So If you like a drink in Norway you need to plan ahead. Even queuing up to purchase your alcohol is no guarantee you will get it as if it says 18:00 hrs on the till by the time you get to the counter you can forget about your party tonight. The till shuts down sales.

They have a criminal Eurovision song contest record finishing last 11 times. This overshadows the 3 wins they have to date. But creates a record in itself as no other country has had so many “Nul” points as Norway.

I have never been to a party yet where someone has said  “if only we had a few more Norwegians here then the party would really get going” So they don’t have a reputation of being the most sociable people. If they do it’s a well-kept secret.

Prices of coffee, beer and eating out are also seen as quite high in comparison to the rest of Europe and backpackers are told that you would need about €90 a day to get by, seems expensive. People complain about the lack of choice of food especially those that have moved from cultures with more options in a supermarket and sometimes the quality of fruit and veg in some stores seems questionable.

But for some reason

Despite all that I have outlined above, the people of Norway are constantly placed in the top ten happiest countries in the world. In 2017 they stole the top spot from the happy Danish people and beat their closest neighbours Sweden, Iceland and Finland to the top spot.

A Brief history?

Norway is an interesting country. Norway was relatively poor once one of the poorest countries in Europe in the early part of the 20th century. It had spent centuries with an on and off connection to Sweden starting in the 14th century.  and ultimately gaining independence from Sweden on the 7th of June 1905 only to have the 33-year-old  Prince Carl of Denmark called on to become the King of Norway. The National day for Norway is Constitution Day on May the 17th this goes back to 1814 its simply called “Syttende Mai” The Seventeenth of May. Norway and Denmark had sided with and Napoleon against the British and lost but it was the first time Norway had its own independent Constitution. For many years in the Early 19th century the Swedes had not allowed the Norwegians to celebrate this day. The will to celebrate “Syttende Mai” grew in significance. It also coincides with the end of the German occupation of Norway and the cessation of the World war 2 on the 8th of May 1945 which for many Norwegians was another great reason to celebrate Syttende Mai.

It was only with the discovery of oil and gas in the late 1960’s that turned Norway’s economic  fortunes around. It invested the oil revenues in a sovereign wealth fund that has a present day value of $885 billion and they also heavily taxed any foreign investors in Norwegian oil.

What are the 6 Key foundations to a nations Happiness and does Norway have them?

  1. GDP per capita
  2. Social Support
  3. Healthy life expectancy
  4. Social Freedom
  5. Generosity
  6. Absence of Corruption

Norway’s GDP per capita

Norway has an extremely healthy GDP at $64,124 . The nordic average for Finland Iceland,Sweden, Denmark and Norway combined is $47,375. in the 1980’s both Britain and  Norway invested in North sea oil reserves. Rather than splurge on all the money from oil that was discovered the Norwegians created a Sovereign wealth fund. Even with todays low oil prices, Norway is shielded from economic upset and citizens have guaranteed pensions on retirement and very little stress about their future. The fund is worth $885 billion and is the third largest sovereign wealth fund in the world. Britain never developed one and to this day has none.

The cost of living is expensive in Norway. The wages that are paid are commensurate with this and people can afford to get by with limited worries about financial difficulty.  Norway has the 2nd highest female to male ratio income. The normal stresses that the the rest of the world experience are not felt by Norwegians. Once they travel abroad there money goes even further. Frequent shopping trips to neighbouring  Sweden for alcohol and other items can bring savings. Even better is a trip to southern Europe or elsewhere where a Norwegian wallet will buy a bottle of Champagne while the rest of us are drinking Cava.

Social Support

Norway 6

One of the key things to feeling happy is the understanding that someone has your back. In home life or at the workplace “the knowing that there is someone to support you when things might get hard whether you need it or not” is a key component to a positive life evaluation and Norwegians have this. In Norway 93% of people believe that they have someone who they can rely on in times of need.

Norwegian Parents get to share 46 weeks of Maternity/Paternity leave for each child at 100% income if both parents share the leave and 56 weeks at 80% of income. Starting a job and thinking about having children are not a barrier to an employers decision to choose you. It is seen as something that everyone experiences and you may be asked the question at your interview process only to be informed of the great Maternity leave policy that the company have in place for you if you have Children.

Sick pay from work is 100% of salary and Unemployment assistance is 62% of last 3 years salary. Saying that the unemployment figures for Norway are 4%. Which means that many have purposeful employment.

Health care costs per capita are the highest in the world at $9,715. The benefits of high taxes provide all under 16’s and pregnant women with free medical care. Everyone else once they reach an annual deductible medical expense threshold of about €210 then receives free medical care. This takes a huge amount of stress out of the possibility of getting ill as many other countries have private health care systems for their citizens. If a hospital is unable to treat you condition in Norway it will arrange treatment abroad free of charge for you, That is hard to beat.

Education in Norway is free. University is 96% funded by public money. There are no tuition fees. The large student debts that many students end up with in Countries like Britain and the USA only contribute to an unhappy and stressful start to working life. The only debt that Norwegian students end up with from University is if they have needed to move city and rent elsewhere.

Health care on tap, free education for all, Maternity/Paternity leave with at least 80% of salary being paid for up to 56 weeks combined with a 100% sick pay scheme if illness arrives and a 62% of salary unemployment rate if you are unlucky enough to become a part of the 4% unemployed Norwegians.

They Have a healthy Life expectancy.

Eat enough Omega 3’s and this is bound to happen.Norway is surrounded and filled with a lot of water. They have quite a healthy lifestyle. Alcohol consumption is 28th out of all the 33 OECD countries. They also have a good health service and life expectancy of 82 compared with the OECD average of 80.

Also knowing that their future is secure with the $885 billion Sovereign wealth fund as a safety net for any future economic downturns. Norwegians experience less stress in their lives until the winter olympics and the Swedes beat them in Curling.

Almost 100% of the Norwegian population are satisfied with their drinking water. They live an outdoors life and like to Ski at any possible chance. The are surrounded by beautiful clean air and have 32.000 electric cars running on free electricity at present. Clean air in an oil rich country.

Social Freedom

Norway 4

Norwegians value their freedom. They only work 1,423 hours per year the 2nd lowest in the world. They spend 15.6 hours of their day on average concentrating on family,leisure and personal care. That makes sense.

Feriepenger is a word Norwegians have for a month of Holidays in July. Very little gets done in July. The sun is up the weather warmer and everyone gets paid for the month off with 12% of last years salary. Norway even has free bridging days if a public holiday falls on a Tuesday or a Thursday then you get the Monday or the Friday off to spend more time eating Fårikål a national dish of boiled mutton and peppercorns YUM!!!

When asked the question  in the world happiness report 2017  “Are you satisfied or dissatisfied with your freedom to choose what to do with your lives? the Norwegians responded with a resounding yes. Norwegians can choose to go to university and they can readily choose their careers.

Allemansrett: Means you have the right to roam pretty much anywhere in Norway. You can pitch your tent, travel and forage anywhere that is not private land. Norway is a vast country with a population of only 5 million people. There is a lot of land that is free for its citizens to explore and enjoy.

Do Norwegians feel safe.

Norway 5

Norway has quite a low  prison population. It has less than roughly 3,800 in a country with a population of 5 million. Rehabilitation is a big part of prison life. Prisons are open rather than closed and turning inmates into valued members of society is a priority. That makes Norway’s incarceration rate just 75 per 100,000 people, compared to 707 people for every 100,000 people in the US. Taking someones freedom is seen as punishment enough for crimes.

Leaving a purse behind in a coffee shop and returning to find it still where you left it is a common part of Norwegian life. Children are left in prams outside coffee shops as parents drink coffee. Children play outside on dark evenings in the winter and crime levels are very low. The murder rate is among the lowest in the world.

Norwegians take reformation of the individuals importantly. Three young children were playing in the snow one day  in 1994 in Trondheim ,two boys and a girl Silje Redergard. They were six and Silje was five. An argument broke out and Silje was killed by the boys. The boy names were never released and the papers never ran with the story like the Bulger case in Britain. They were immediately assigned into new Kindergartens with the approval of the parents of other children there. Rehabilitation was provided for the boys until they where 18 yrs old. One has responded well the other struggles to this day with what he has done but neither was incarcerated. Silje”s mother although still heartbroken agrees with the system of rehabilitation that Norwegian society has compared to other countries. Even Anders Behring Breivik has only received a 21 year sentence for the killing of 77 people in July 2011. His release will be postponed if authorities do not think he is fully rehabilitated.

Trust

Trust plays a big part in Norwegian society all wages and taxes paid are transparent for everyone to see online even the Prime ministers salary and tax returns,

The Government even employed a Philosopher to government role to advise on how best morally to spend the Sovereign Wealth fund. Henrik Syse advised the government on how spend the oil money that funded the wealth fund. His thinking was it took 200 million years for the oil to be formed let us not waste it in 50 years. The Norwegians use the surplus created from the fund but on Henrik’s advice they never touch the capital because it is not their money but future generations money for them to use. Quite a forward way of thinking that has kept Norway as one of the most stable countries in the world and allowed them to ride out the financial storm of 2008 and the falling oil prices of 2016/17.

They like the slow life

In 2009 the state broadcaster aired a live broadcast of the famous Oslo to Bergen railway journey, filmed from the perspective of the driver at the front of the train. Its a 500km  train journey live on TV and 25% of the Nation watched it probably eating boiled mutton while they did. This was recreated in 2011 in June with a coastal boat trip from Bergen to Kirkenes a 134 hour live broadcast of the boat trip. People came out to greet the ship as it passed and for 6 days the country was enthralled. It was the most watched broadcast in Norwegian Television history with over half the whole population of 5 million tuning in. The Queen even came out to get involved. There have been more slow TV broadcasts of a live crackling fire, salmon fishing, a knitting marathon and canal cruises. All mesmerisingly slow and relaxing and contributing to the calm approach to life that the Norwegians possess. Allowing them more time to write Eurovision hits.

What Norway is doing right.

Norway is a country which has so many of the attributes of a happy society.  People in Norway experience less anxiety about what is around the corner for them. They have an education system that is free and available to all to make choices career wise without incurring the burden of financial debt in the early years of working life. Many jobs in Norway are seen as job for life and are recruited with this in mind. Maternity and Paternity leave can be taken for over a year on between 80 to 100%  pay. Sick pay is 100% of Salary. July is a month of Holiday which is paid for by contributions paid in advance by workers. They have bridging holidays if a national holiday falls on a Tuesday of Thursday to give longer off. That’s smart

Unemployment is at 4% but if you become one of the 4% you are paid 62% of your previous salary until you get your next employment. The Health service is free after you have paid roughly €210 in charges for the year. Any operation that the hospital can not provide for you domestically is organised and paid for abroad.

You are unlikely to go to prison but if you do you will work on a programme of reahabilitation to return you as a functioning member of Norwegian society when you leave. Everyone in prison has a job and many cater for themselves,Trust is a major part of society and everyones wages and taxes are available to view online.

The Government has not squandeed the money made from the oil reserves discovered less than 50 years ago. They have delayed gratification and created a fund of $885 billion that will ensure that the country survives economic downturns and guarantees a pension on retirement to all Norwegian citizens.  With A health life expectancy of 82 years and a beuitiful clean environment to live in. You can see why Norwegians feel as happy about life as they do.

Maybe that happiness can help Norway forget all those nul point Eurovision losses and 11 last place positions.

 

 

 

 

American happiness is broken

24 Mar

Heres a stat that will blow you away. American students owe $1 trillion in college loan debt! Starting working life in debt creates anxiety before real life adult pressures really set in. Once again the world happiness report 2017 has come up with some interesting research. Jeffrey D Sachs has looked at the declining happiness levels in the worlds biggest economy and what is causing them, Let’s have a look.

American economic growth

Since the 1960’s American Income has increased 3 fold. Per capita GDP in America is still on the rise. But happiness levels are dropping. As noted in my post on “What creates a happy society“.we know that happiness when calculated is broken down to 6 foundations. GDP per capita,social support,healthy life expectancy,generosity absence of corruption.

In the top ten countries in the world for happiness 5 of them are Nordic. Finland, Norway, Denmark,Iceland and Sweden. If we mirror the results of these five happy countries against the USA we see this

Superwhite

 

As we can see from the data above. The GDP of the USA is higher on average than the Nordic average. When we look at Social freedom we see a marked difference between the Nordic countries and the USA. The question “Are you satisfied or dissatisfied with your freedom to choose what to with your lives” is given an overwhelming positive reply from the open and trusting Nordic’s, Less so from the USA where inequality strives.

Social support and having someone else to rely on when things get difficult also sees a lower score for residents of the USA where fear of your neighbour has become a common theme since 2001.

Corruption has as we see been experienced by the citizens of Iceland during their financial crash. They began immediately taking matters into their own hands and let the toxic banks fail but they still feel the repercussions. Even with the high Icelandic score perception of a corrupt society is quite low in the Nordic average, It’s exactly half of what citizens of the USA perceive to be the level of corruption for them.

Americas crisis is not an economic crisis but a social one.

It seems that all the rhetoric that comes from Central government in The USA is that if the Economic growth rate is higher than all American woes will end. And the once elusive American dream will once again become a reality.

The truth couldn’t be further away.  Take corruption for example if America was to return to the perceived corruption levels of 10 years ago was 0.62 as opposed to the present level of 0.72 is the equivalent of raising happiness levels by 0.054( I know! there are lots of figures here but bear with me) If like at present the present administration hope to make American citizens happier by more iconic growth and greater GDP. It would take an increase of GDP from $53,000 to $62,000 to provide the same gain.

Simply by providing the citizens with  a more open society with less involvement of corporations and banks and the need to run multi Billion dollar campaigns to get elected the USA would see rise in Happiness levels equivalent to an $9,000 increase in GDP. Listening to some of the positive governance  attributes that the Nordic countries put into practice would also make a difference.

Lack of social support

 

Make America love again

Simply (without going back into mathematics again) put, the decline in Social networks and support would take an even greater chunk of GDP. To offset this decline would mean an increase from $53,000 to $82,000 in GDP , simply to return to the levels of social support felt in 2006/2007. This would take decades to achieve. Yet no one talks about finding ways to create greater social supports in any political debate. The debates go the other direction and if you are on your  knees it’s generally seen that you did not try hard enough. Social supports in Nordic countries involve free health care, education and welfare supports in times of difficulty for their citizens. All of these are sen as luxuries that citizens of the USA should not see as a right and should be only accessed by those who can afford it.

This is the cost

In all four areas that America lags (far in some cases)behind the Nordic countries on, social freedom, corruption, social support and generosity. The Nordic countries excel. The equivalent cost to American citizens from this is a 0.31 points drop in happiness levels that in Economic terms would have to have GDP rise from $53,000 to $133,000 to offset the drop in Social capital.

Tackle corruption, provide greater social supports and greater social freedoms and an increase in generosity( where it is shown to greatly increase human wellbeing) and you have the formula for a happier United States.

Inequality has increased

The rising difference between rich and poor is ever more evident in American society. The gap between rich and poor continues to grow and all the studies point towards greater levels of unhappiness in societies with greater inequality. The top 1% of those in America have 23% of the country’s income while the bottom 70% share the same amount between them.

Pro social behaviour is declining

Mortality rates are also rising among middle-aged white men and women in the US compared to a decline in Western Europe and a decline in USA’s northerly neighbours in Canada. It is not simply a health crisis but a social crisis.

Other factors

  • The belief that the American government does not have its citizens welfare at heart but more so powerful lobbies, corporations and the wealthy.
  • The destruction of supports such as unions for workers, social welfare for the poor and health care and education for all has played a major role in the social decline.
  • The constant feeling or expectation that fear is just around the corner for the average American. The wars with Iraq, Afghanistan, Yemen, Libya and Syria have contributed to this. The constant need for surveillance and racial profiling have made it very difficult for Americans to feel less threatened,stressed or experience greater freedom.
  • The Education system has declined rapidly. With a huge gap between those with college degree education and those without. In Denmark and other Nordic countries a life without a University education is not frowned on but in some case other options are encouraged. If a University education is the chosen route of their Nordic counterparts it is available free to all who do so. A third level education in America will leave many students in debt for many years after they have finished college. The result as I said earlier is $1 trillion of student debt which can only impact negatively on those struggling to pay back their loans.
  • Not one of the countries in the top ten happiest countries has a history of constant war or invasion of others. Given that the Viking age of plundering is well past, all these countries live a life of relative peace. Iceland does not even have an army and Sweden, Finland and Switzerland all have neutrality status.

Going down the wrong road.

Wrong road

It’s like looking for your socks in the refrigerator you know it’s futile and you know you won’t find them. America is chasing something that will not provide happiness (constant economic growth) while ignoring exactly what will.

The answers to what they should do are very close to them. The USA just needs to look at the way their northern neighbours in Canada treat multiculturalism and immigration. How they provide a healthcare system where everyone matters and no one is left behind which allows Canada a constant place in the top ten happy countries index.

Or look to Norway with high levels of transparency. Where they have every citizen including the prime ministers salary and tax paid available online for everyone to see. When citizens of the USA are not even sure if their president has paid any tax.

Iceland decided that a society that rewards the banks and shackles its populace is unjust and unfair and decided that the citizens of Iceland mattered more. The financial woes that Iceland have felt should have sent them nearer number 87 on the happiness index with Greece but it didn’t. They felt someone had their backs and it felt good.

America has the solutions but it also has the problems. It has to decide what does it really want….Wealth and power at any cost, or a constant declining happiness for its people.

 

 

 

The World happiness report 2017 Happiness and How to end Misery.

23 Mar

Credit to Andrew  E. Clark, Sarah Fleche, Richard Layard, Nattavudh Powdthee and George Ward for creating the chapter in The World happiness report 2017 on the Key determinants of happiness and misery.

Life satisfaction and the people

Q.”Overall how satisfied are you with your life these days? measured on a scale of 0-10 0 being extremely dissatisfied to 10 being extremely satisfied.This is a typical question that is a  determinant of a populations life satisfaction.

The life satisfaction of the populace is a strong predictor of whether a government is re-elected. It’s more important than economic growth, unemployment and inflation. Probably something David Cameron should have measured before asking the British to vote on Brexit.In fact the research taken by the above researchers has proven Life satisfaction of the people within the European elections since the 1970’s has been the best  predictor of a  governments chance of re-election.

What is Misery?

Misery to many is the lowest form of happiness. In this report the researchers concentrated on five different studies between the USA, Australia ,Britain and Indonesia and identified those who were in the lowest levels of happiness which  they called “In Misery” and looked at various areas of their lives that might be contributing to this  “Misery”

  1. Poverty
  2. Uneducated
  3. Unemployed
  4. Not partnered
  5. Physical illness
  6. Depression/Anxiety

What they discovered was the biggest determinant to reducing Misery was to reduce not eradicating poverty, increasing employment or improving physical illness. It was the elimination of depression and anxiety.

It is true that there would be much less misery if fewer people lived on their own. But the best way to reduce Misery ( the unhappiest people in the country) was to reduce mental illness. It was also the cheapest. Have a look at this table below

£k per year

Poverty                           Raising more people above the poverty line

180

Unemployment        Reducing unemployment by active labour market policy

30

Physical Health           Raising more people from the worst 20% of present day illness

100

Mental Health           Treating more people for depression and anxiety

10

 

So as we can see from here if we want to help those that are the unhappiest in our societies the ones that we state are “in misery” if we begin to treat depression and anxiety we will see not only the greater difference but also the most cost-effective measure.

Does childhood matter?

Happy Kids

The answer is yes. If you want to improve your countries happiness it starts in the formative years with Children. The three areas of Child development that are key are

  1. Intellectual development
  2. Behaviour
  3. Emotional health

It is discovered that both parents and schooling affect a child’s development.  This is what matters.

  • Family income has a substantial effect on a child’s academic performance, but a much smaller effect on a child’s behaviour and emotional health.
  • If the mother goes to work in the first year of a child’s life there are on average very small negative effects.
  • If the mother works in subsequent years, however it is seen as beneficial for academic performance and does no measured harm to the child’s emotional health.
  • Parental engagement with Children through reading and play is immensely valuable.
  • Conflict between parents is especially disadvantageous.
  • But the worst thing of all for the children emotional health and behaviour is a mother with poor mental health. It is suggested that a mother’s mental health matters more than the father’s.

How important is Schooling?

African kids in school

In the 1960’s a report By James Samuel Coleman ( The Coleman report) in the US stated that parents mattered more than schools and there was no difference in what ever school your child was educated in. Modern data is proving different and the choice of school really matters especially the second level choice,The school and the individual teachers are extremely important to an academic performance and happiness. So Pick your child’s school wisely.

We all have an impact on others happiness

Each of us has a marked impact on the happiness of others. How others behave has a major influence on our happiness. An environment of crime and corruption a nd lack of trust as outlined in my last article are huge determinants on a populace’s wellbeing.

Negative child development has a direct impact on crime. The number of crimes a person commits is directly connected to child development. Education has a major benefit through the reduction of crime.

Comparing yourself with others does not help

We live in a world of comparisons and this is one of the negatives of todays society. Spending time on social media comparing our experience of the world to others does more damage than good. Feelings of inadequacy creep in. The Easterlin paradox is at play for many of us.”There is much evidence that people compare themselves with others and if others become richer than them then they feel less happy no matter what the income”

So to escape misery what should we do?

  • Countries should focus on reducing anxiety and depression in their populace it takes more people out of Misery ( the unhappiest people) and is the most cost-effective. For £10,000 a year per person we can alter peoples lives for the better.
  • Focus on our Children . Parental income is a good indicator of a child’s academic future but a poor predictor of a child’s emotional health.
  • Schools both primary but especially secondary are crucially important to a childs emotional health, behaviour and  academic progress.
  • But.. the biggest predictor of all of these is the mental health of the child’s mother.
  • Mother and child

The World happiness report 2017. What creates a happy society.

22 Mar

Happy culture

The World happiness report 2017 has provided a wealth of information that social engineers, economists and Governments can learn from. We now have the ability to share and compare data from 155 countries around the world. Why does one country score higher than another on the happiness index and what can we learn from this

 

How is this done?

Out of the 155 countries roughly 1,000 participants from each population is asked a series of questions based on life evaluations on subjective wellbeing.The questions can come in different formats.

  • A binary 1 or 0 answer. 1 for true 0 for false
  • A Cantril ladder question ” Please imagine a ladder with steps numbered from 0 at the bottom to 10 at the top. The top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom of the ladder represents the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder would you say you personally feel you stand at this time?

How do we measure subjective wellbeing

The OECD provided guidelines on measuring Subjective wellbeing in 2013. This definition of subjective well being covers 3 areas.

  1. Life evaluation-a reflective assessment on a person’s life or some specific aspect of it.
  2. Affect-a person’s feelings or emotional states, typically measured with reference to particular point in time.
  3. Eudaimoniaa- a sense of meaning and purpose in life, or good psychological functioning.

The 6 key foundations to a countries happiness.

So in trying to define how we can measure a countries happiness, it was decided that there were six key areas that mattered. Once the data was collected and collated a uniform picture would develop of each countries level of happiness.

  1. GDP per capita
  2. Social support
  3. Healthy life expectancy
  4. Social freedom
  5. Generosity
  6. Absence of corruption

Before we get into the six different foundations of happiness and how they vary internationally. Let us look at some of the discoveries that came from the latest research and reporting on happiness.

There is no happiness set point.

For years researchers believed that everyone had a set point of happiness that rarely moved. You could have a set point happiness score of 5.8 out of 10 and then win the lottery and your score would rise to 7.9 quite quickly but then you would return after a period of time to your original 5.8 set point.

Four independent lines of evidence point towards this. This is especially evident in the migration of populations into new environments and adapting new set points in the new country comparable to the residents of their new rather than old country.

What else matters?

What also was learned was

  • That the existence of positive emotions matters much more than the absence of negative ones. Trying to eliminate the negatives without supplementing your life with positives does not have the same impact on wellbeing.
  • That freedom and generosity have a large impact on positive affect.
  • There is much evidence that those who have happier lives are more likely to “live longer, be most trusting, be more co-operative and be generally better able to meet life demands” this will feedback to improve health,GDP,generosity,corruption and sense of freedom.
  • Average Life evaluation in top 10 countries are twice as high as the bottom 10.
  • The GDP of the top 10 countries is 25 times higher than those in the bottom 10. Who said money does not matter.
  • With scoring out of a possible 10. The gap between the top 10 countries and the bottom 10 was a huge 4 point gap. Norway scored a 7.537 in number one position and Syria scored a 3.462 in 152nd place. The reasoning is quite evident.

Who are the happiest and unhappiest?

  1. Norway  (7.537)                      155. Cen Afri Rep(2.693)
  2. Denmark (7.522)                    154. Burundi (2.905)
  3. Iceland  (7.504)                       153. Tanzania (3.349)
  4. Switzerland (7.494)                152. Syria (3.462)
  5. Finland   (7.469)                      151. Rwanda (3.471)
  6. Netherlands (7.377)               150. Togo (3.495)
  7. Canada    (7.316)                     149. Guinea (3.507)
  8. New Zealand (7.314)              148. Liberia (3.533)
  9. Australia  (7.284)                     147. South Sudan (3.591)
  10. Sweden   (7.284)                      146. Yemen (3.593)

Here are the findings.

GDP

Maslows Pyramid of hierarchical needs proves that if people have not had their basic needs met then they cannot concentrate on happiness or self actualisation. Being in poverty allows little time to concentrate on what increases wellbeing and a positive life evaluation. So GDP does matter but on its own will never complete a picture of happiness.

Economic performance is the key foundation to Economic growth. Those countries with higher level of trust can see stronger levels of growth that can permeate positively through society once good governance is present.

Social support

support

If you were in trouble, do you have relatives or friends you can count on to help you whenever you need them, or not?  was the question asked of individuals a binary 1 or 0 was the answer given.

Having someone to count on has a very large impact on our wellbeing even when everything else is taken into account. With this in mind 99% of the Icelandic population reacted positively to this question. The Irish populace did the same. Two countries that only 8 years previously fell into economic collapse. This accompanied by good governance in both countries allowed them to take the number 3 and 15 slot respectively. Positions that would seem should have been lower rankings.

For a country to have 10% more of its population with someone to rely on is the equivalent  to a doubling of its GDP. Increase your social supports and you may as well have doubled GDP. It is hard to feel happy when you have a huge sense of loneliness and no one to turn to.

Healthy life expectancy.

Social support is important as is a wide range of social connections. A Swedish study by Rosengren found that exposure to stressful events sharply increased subsequent mortality among previously healthy men. The risk was almost entirely eliminated for those who felt they had high levels of emotional support.

Those with a broad range of social contacts have a much lower susceptibility to a common cold virus. In an experimental study it was discovered that those with enduring conflicts were more than twice as likely to develop a cold when exposed to a cold virus.

Generosity also plays a big part to play in happiness. Generosity benefits physical health with a variety of studies proving that the health benefits are greater for the giver.

Also global evidence that significant links between social trust and health status. High inequality in income has an effect on health status. Social Support and volunteering also play a major part in a nation’s health.

Social Freedom

The question asked was “Are you satisfied or dissatisfied with your freedom to choose what to do with your lives? The Answer again was a binary 1 or 0.Maybe more scope for greater information on people’s freedom is needed here. The variations across countries was large ranging from a lowly 26% to a high of 98%. If a country was able to increase their social freedom score by 10% it would be the equivalent of a growth of 40% in GDP  which is a remarkable return on creating a society with greater living choices. For many countries like Denmark, Norway, Germany, Finland and Sweden where education is free to all. The ability to make life choices on careers and learning that other countries can not provide makes a marked difference to the way the populace view their future and the autonomy they are given to design it.

Generosity

Give

The question put to participants was “Have you given money to a charitable cause in the past 30 days? In richer societies this is an easier option with greater disposable finances to contribute with. When collating data it was adjusted for income effects so that they can be sure that the effect is not a consequence of higher incomes. By doing this it also increases the estimated effects of per capita incomes.

Generosity also plays a big part to play in happiness. Generosity benefits physical health with a variety of studies proving that the health benefits are greater for the giver. Which could also be born out by policy advisor Simon Anholts research into the countries that do more good for other countries in the world. The top five are….

Ireland
Finland
Switzerland
Netherlands
New Zealand
All top 15 countries. Doing good makes you feel good.

An increase by 10% in populace donations would provide an equivalent boost of 25% GDP. Subjective wellbeing research shows that in all cultures even from early childhood people are drawn to helping others and when they do they are happier.

Corruption,trust and good governance.

Two questions are asked here and they relate to corruption within in business and government in their respective countries. Just like within the workplace trust is important. High trust societies are happier places to live.

Norway has an open and transparent society on the most part everyone’s tax returns and salaries are open for everyone to see online at Skattetaten, even the Royal family.

If you decreased by 10% the number of the population that thought corruption was a problem it would garner an equivalent rise in GDP by 20%.

It is noted that good governance enables countries to sustain or improve happiness. Norway has weathered a downturn in oil prices by extracting oil supplies slowly over a number of years rather than extracting and selling all reserves.Maintaining a purse for all it’s citizens . For while other countries have struck oil and then binged on the revenues, by contrast Norway is continuing to invest its oil and gas money in a giant sovereign wealth fund.
The fund, worth about $800bn (£483bn), owns 1% of the entire world’s stocks, and is big enough to make every citizen a millionaire in the country’s currency, the kroner. In effect, it is a giant savings account.
Allowing them to ride out any storm that oil prices may be causing.

People are more satisfied in countries with greater governance.

In conclusion

The potential benefits from improving the social foundations of wellbeing are enormous. Danish Researchers have calculated that those who are 15 years or more in the same community see decrease in the possibility  of a U-shaped dropped in happiness in mid-life in comparison to those residing in a community for shorter periods.

Social support does matter to overall wellbeing and health. Provide greater opportunities for this and see happiness rise within communities. An equivalent doubling of GDP.

Provide people with free education provides greater sense  of social freedom. Denmark , Germany, Finland , Norway and Sweden provide all this. While many of the unhappier countries are poorer and can not or do not provide any education or third level options for life choices.

In the top 10 countries life evaluations average 7.4 on the 1-10 scale. While the bottom 10 average is 3.4 such a large differential generally scoring low on all 6 areas.With GDP Life expectancy through health and lack of social support being the greatest contributors to unhappiness. Target these and happiness will slowly increase. Also it was noted that changing the focus from income to happiness greatly increases ways of improving the lives of the unhappy.

Improve social support, generosity and a trustworthy environment  like many of the northern European countries and Canada experience and everybody wins.

 

 

 

 

Happiness at work 2017- Do we even want to work.

21 Mar

Today is the World happiness report was published. A report that was first published in 2012. The happiest country in the world this year is Norway just piping Denmark to the top spot. Denmark have had the crown more times than any other country but second place this year is still a great achievement.

Within the report Jan-Emmanuel De Neve( Oxford University) and George Ward(LSE) produced a comprehensive world report on happiness at work.  I have outlined below a few of the main points that they have discovered from their research.

Unemployment has a wider affect than expected.

We all know that being unemployed has a detrimental effect on our ability to provide for ourselves and our family but also in providing a sense of purpose to our existence.

The research completed by Jan-Emmanuel and George showed that high unemployment affects everyone negatively. Including

  • That individuals who are unemployed report approximately 30 per cent more negative affective experiences as opposed to those in employment.
  • People do not adapt much if at all to being unemployed.
  • Returning to work after a period of unemployment leaves scarring and can lead to lower happiness than those who have not lost employment at any stage.
  • Employment matters greatly for the wellbeing of individuals.
  • High unemployment in a society can have an indirect effect on those with jobs as this creates anxiety and heightens fear about job security.
  • Unemployed people are less affected by higher unemployment as the social stigma may be lessened and it is also easier to find social contacts.
  • High national unemployment contributes negatively to national happiness.

Are Self employed Happier than full time employees?

tsawyer

This is interesting

  • Self employment in Latin America the Caribbean and Sub Saharan Africa reported lower life evaluations.
  • In comparison those that were self-employed in Europe, North America, Australia New Zealand, Commonwealth states and East Asia associated Self employment with a higher life evaluation and a positive affect. Greater Autonomy and social safety nets in these structures might have a part to play in these differences.
  • Being self-employed has also higher levels of negative emotions such as stress and worry.

 

Blue or White Collar who is happier?

Well the report noticed that there is a difference between jobs that required physical exertion and manual  labour and those that worked in professional environments.

  • Construction workers, manufacturing, Forestry and fisheries workers, Transport and  Mining workers all experienced lower levels of happiness than their counterparts.
  • Professionals, Managers, Executives and officials scored themselves a little over 6 out of 10  when evaluating the quality of their lives in comparison to 4.5 out of 10 on average for those working in farming Fisheries and forestry.
  • But the interesting comparison is that farming, forestry and fishing in North America, Australia and New Zealand reported equal if not higher life evaluations to their professional counterparts.
  • Where you live and what support you have matters.

Satisfaction and Engagement at work

sleep well

Here are some facts that we already knew but are interesting all the same.

  • By this Gallup poll it was a bleak picture that was painted when we looked at employee engagement. Less than 20% of workers were  actively engaged at work. Only 10% in Western Europe and even less in East Asia.If We round that off to 85% internationally for disengaged workers. The Figures are staggering.
  • A reference was made to The Bryson and Mckerron report that had individuals through an App relay what they were feeling and what they were doing at random times during the day as their smart phone pinged them. Out of the 39 activities that individuals could report engaging in work was rated lower than any of the other 39 activities with the sole exception of being sick in bed as worse. That says a lot.People would rather be doing any of the other 37 activities than working.
  • Senior professionals recorded a higher job satisfaction rating than any other job type.This may equate to pay and conditions and benefits available.

Money matters

The report found that higher wages are predictive of greater wellbeing. Those in higher paying jobs are more satisfied with their lives than those in the lower paid roles. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs is being met here and not for others. There is also higher levels  of self actualization available in certain roles.

What is important beyond income?

What was discovered was that there are six areas after money was no longer an issue that mattered.

  1. Variety within a role  and the ability to learn new things leads to more satisfied workers who experience more positive emotions day-to-day.
  2.  Social capital or support from co workers a feeling that your boss or others are looking out for you.Also having a say in regards to policy decisions made by the organization.
  3. Autonomy- The ability to control their working day and make decisions that matter to what they do.
  4. A balance between work and life. Those that have a job that leave them too tired to enjoy the non work elements of their lives report lower levels of positive affect. Less time with family and having to bring their job home also contributes to lower levels of subjective wellbeing.
  5. A role with good opportunities for advancement and opportunity leads to greater satisfaction.
  6. The competence of bosses has been shown to be a strong indicator of job satisfaction.

Consequently those with Jobs that involved risks for health and safety scored worse on measures for subjective wellbeing.

With such low levels of employee engagement(less than 20%) there is still a lot to be done to make work feel relevant to many people. Simply put if people were financially stable and working for money was no longer an issue people would most likely spend their day quite differently.

So money does matter but so does control over the working day. A balance between work and non work experiences. An opportunity to experience self actualization in work through advancement and learning and a feeling that someone in your workplace is looking out for you.

Get some of these right and we might slowly move the desire by many of the worlds workers to be anywhere but work.

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